By following a strict and balanced diet, diabetes can be cured. A diet for diabetes mellitus will slow down the rate of disease development and will have a beneficial effect on the patient's condition. Must be constantly respected. The main methods of preventing unwanted consequences are self-discipline and a varied diabetic menu.
When diabetes has just started, it is imperative to set restrictions on foods that are high in carbohydrates and sugar, as they can raise blood glucose levels. But still, despite the restrictions set, the body needs a balanced intake of beneficial ingredients. In this case, doctors prescribe a dietary meal for the patient. Failure to follow a diet can negatively affect your health. Of course, prescribed medications must be taken. But a detailed diet for diabetes, compiled by a doctor, will only improve the physical condition.
To control hunger, you need to eat often - at least 5-6 times a day and in small portions, including main meals and snacks.
For patients with diabetes mellitus, there are principles of dietary therapy. If you have first-degree obesity, it is better to give preference to vegetables and fruits instead of flour or fatty foods. It is more beneficial to sprinkle salads with olive oil with the addition of a few drops of lemon. To speed up the metabolic processes of the liver, low-fat cottage cheese, soy, oats and lean fish should be present in the diet. It is better to prepare vegetable soup from the first dishes. You have to wait with the meat juices or cook the soup in a secondary soup. The need to limit the consumption of eggs, potatoes, corn. If there are any, then very few and seldom. As for salt, the recommended daily serving is less than half a teaspoon. And it is desirable that it be sea salt.
Nutritional features for different categories
The fact is that the purpose of the diet depends on the type of diabetes mellitus and the category to which the person belongs: for children, for pregnant women, for people dependent on insulin or with diabetes, the diet varies. Although the general principles of diet apply to all categories, each of them requires a unique approach to the issue.
Simple food is the best food for pregnancy with diabetes related.
A strict diet for people with type 1 diabetes, that is, for people who need insulin, should consist of foods rich in protein and fiber. You will need to limit your intake of salt, fat, fast carbs and foods that irritate the gastrointestinal tract, and also contain sugar.
Unlike diabetes for insulin maintenance, in type II diabetes mellitus, diet helps reduce the caloric content of food and normalize metabolism. With excess blood sugar, such a diet will affect its reduction. The same diet will also serve during the onset of diabetes. The diet of a pregnant woman should be as balanced as possible without harming the baby. The best diet for an expectant mother is simple food.
About glycemic index and calories
The nutritional value of the products determines how many beneficial ingredients will be converted into energy for the body. And the glycemic index of foods shows how fast carbohydrates are absorbed, while raising blood sugar levels. Therefore, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, you should eat foods with a low glycemic index, as the carbohydrates available in them have time to be expended by the body and distributed evenly in it. And carbohydrates in foods with such a high rate contribute to fat deposition, not having time to be fully converted into energy.
In addition to the number of calories, the glycemic index value of different foods can be found from the tables on a scale from 0 to 100. But to effectively plan a diet, you need to consider a number of factors that affect the change in the content ofcalories and glycemic index. The main ones include:
Cooking in a slow cooker is one of the acceptable ways to heat food.
- How to cook. The glycemic index of foods increases with heat treatment, especially if they are fried. Products should be baked, boiled or cooked in a slow cooker.
- Characteristics of fibers. Eating the peels of fruits, cereals and beans will slow down the breakdown of glucose, preventing an increase in the glycemic index.
- Maturity of fruits and vegetables. The more ripe the fruit, the more calories it has.
What can you eat?
The initial stage of diabetes may not be complicated if dietary treatment is strictly followed.
Here is a list of foods that can diversify your daily diet menu as much as possible:
- vegetable soup-based soups as well as low-fat meat dishes 1-2 times a week;
- bread with cereals and bran;
- cooked chicken, steamed or roasted, turkey, rabbit, young beef;
- maximum of seafood cooked in the diet and fish of low-fat varieties: pink salmon, hake, pike;
- buckwheat, wheat porridge, oatmeal;
- low-fat milk and cottage cheese;
- 1 egg per day;
- sugar-free vegetables and fruits;
- homemade sauces from vegetables and milk;
- cakes and dishes for diabetics;
- any tea, coffee with milk, herbal teas (especially with the addition of rose hips), juices from fresh unsaturated fruits.
What should not be consumed?
People with high blood sugar will have to give up pasta.
Foods that are not recommended for diabetics are listed below:
- high-calorie cakes and pastries;
- chocolate and cocoa;
- jam, marmalade and honey;
- fresh and sugar-rich dried fruits such as grapes and bananas, figs, raisins and dates;
- fatty meat dishes;
- animal fat;
- pasta, rice and oatmeal;
- smoked and canned;
- dairy products with a high percentage of fat and sugar;
- alcoholic drink.
How to replace the damage?
Delicious and sweet foods should be excluded from the diabetes menu. But harmful products need proper replacement. Diabetic diet is the simplest alternative. Options for replacing banned products can be found on both regular and specialty grocery store shelves. The table shows which healthy foods can take the place of the forbidden ones.
|Prohibited food||What needs to be replaced|
|Bread with white flour||Peeled rye bread|
|Sweets and sweets||Fruits of trees and shrubs, diabetic sweets|
|Animal fats||Vegetable oils|
|Fatty meats and cheeses||Lean meat, avocado|
|Cream||Low fat dairy products|
Table number 9
The diet includes drinking about 2 liters of water per day.
According to diet number 9, no more than 2400 calories per day are allowed. If translated into grams, then this is equal to 85 g of protein, 80 g of vegetable fats and 300 g of carbohydrates. The diet for suspected diabetes mellitus should be physiologically balanced.
With diabetes and types 1 and 2, the daily intake of water should be 2-3 liters at the rate of 30-40 mm per kilogram of body weight. It is recommended to use only purified water, aseptic and pathogenic bacteria.
Prolonged lack of clean water can lead to dehydration / dehydration. For a diabetic, losing 25% of body fluids can be fatal.
Along with clean water, diabetics can use "mineral water". However, it may be different. Table versions with a mineralization up to 1 g per liter are allowed to drink without restrictions. They contain safe amounts of minerals. Diet "mineral water" stimulates digestion and improves insulin absorption. Before use, open the bottle and wait for the gases to "escape" from it.
The diet for a diabetic should be varied.
The best solution is to create a menu for a week or a month in advance. But for starters, you can switch to a menu for every day. When compiling the menu, you should choose the most diabetic recipes. Further, from the usual dishes, you can also create a weekly menu. Proper daily nutrition will increase the chances of recovery. Below is a sample menu for diabetes mellitus.
|BREAKFAST||Salad with vegetables, buckwheat or oats, cottage cheese, boiled fish|
|The first snack||Fruits, boiled vegetables, compotes|
|dinner||vegetable soup, fish, mushrooms, fish soup; boiled meat, garnish with cereals|
|Afternoon snack||Salad with fruits or vegetables, cakes with cheese, tea|
|dinner||Steam cutlets, vegetable stew|
|The second dinner||Kefir, milk, yogurt|
The breakfast of diabetics should be plentiful, but overeating and eating heavy foods, including whole grains and legumes, other than buckwheat and oats, is not worth it. You can make salads, mousse from fruits, berries and vegetables. Dairy products are also the basis for a good breakfast. Lightly fried zucchini in a light sour cream will make a good appetizer.
A good lunch for diabetics will be soups with mushrooms, vegetables, soups with cereals or beans, cooked in gravy. As a main course, you can eat porridge with salad or kitten. The best salad dressing is olive oil, flaxseed or cedar wood, which are rich in unsaturated fatty acids. You can eat a snack between meals with lactic acid products with the addition of delicious fruits.
The evening meal should be light and nutritious. It is better to prepare a dish that will consist mainly of protein. Healthy lentils combined with vegetables or salads from them are suitable for dinner for a patient with diabetes. If you want to eat late, before going to bed you can drink a glass of warm milk, fermented baked milk or eat some low-fat cottage cheese.
Other diet pills for diabetes
Table 8 is the best diet for overweight people with diabetes. But this diet is prescribed provided there is no heart disease and gastrointestinal disease. The purpose of the diet is to lose weight. Consumption of salt and appetizing foods are minimized. You should also drink no more than 1. 2 liters of water. Diet 8 allows you to consume no more than 1700 calories per day. These are 80 g of protein, 70 g of fats (of which one third are vegetable), 150 g of carbohydrates and 6 g of salt.
Doctors recommend mastering Table 5 for patients with diabetes and concomitant liver and biliary tract diseases. The diet excludes fatty and fried foods, foods containing cholesterol, essential oils, oxalic acid. It is allowed to cook food or cook, you can boil it, but in exceptional cases. This diet favors the normalization of the digestive tract, rejuvenation and slows down the development of diabetes.
With a diet chart number 10, you need to get rid of fatty foods.
For diabetics with cardiac pathology, a diet corresponding to diet 10. Table 10 developed was created to normalize blood circulation, heart rate and restore metabolic processes in diabetic patients. The diet for diabetics stops fatty, salty foods, irritating foods in the nervous system, blood circulation and gastrointestinal tract. Instead, you should eat foods fortified with iodine, potassium, magnesium.
You can experiment with recipes by adding certain ingredients as allowed.
Cut into large slices 400 gr of white cabbage, 6 small tomatoes, 2 carrots, 2 medium onions and 3 fresh peppers. The resulting ingredients should be boiled for a short time over a small amount of vegetable oil and medium heat. Serve as a separate dish. Delicious with poultry and roast beef or fish. Season to taste.
Roasted cabbage pancakes
Chop half a kilo of white cabbage, add parsley, dill, green onions, 1 tablespoon kefir, 1 egg, 50 g slightly salted cheese, 1 tablespoon bran, flour (until the consistency of sour cream). Mix the resulting ingredients and send in a cool place for 30 minutes. Next, lay the pancakes in a pan and bake until golden brown at 180 degrees.